What IS the Color of Stone List
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A metal made up of a mixture
of two or more different metals. Common examples of
alloys include brass (copper and zinc), bronze (a mixture of
copper and tin), and pewter (tin with antimony, copper and
An accumulation of the
sediment deposited by flowing water, such as in a riverbed
Formation of amber
goes back millions of years ago - up to 300 million years -
when, certain tree resin hardened and fossilized over a long
period of time. Whatever got trapped in the tree
resin, go preserved in exactly the same shape to the
very finest detail - droplets of air, water, pieces of
leaves, flowers, wood from ancients forests, even small
living organisms such as insects are still found in amber.
The biggest source of amber comes from Northern Europe's
Baltic Sea region. Used in jewelry making in Europe
for ages, as well as a form of currency and even a medicinal
is the modern-day gemstone of ammonite, and because every
single gemstone is a fossil, it is regarded as the rarest
gem on earth.
The brilliant 70
million year old mineralized fossil ammonite shell this gem
comes from is unique to southern Alberta, Canada.
Rare, gem-quality ammolite appears similar to
black opal, showing different color combinations when the
stone is viewed from different angles. The most common
colors range from yellows, oranges to reds and greens. The
blues are more rare and hence more expensive.
The Blackfoot Indians
believed it would help provide food and used it in bison
hunting ceremonies wrapped in a medicine bundle. In
1981 the International Colored Gemstone Commission
recognized this organic gemstone as "Ammolite". Also
see MOROCCAN AMMONITE.
Hand hammering gold
with wooden mallets which causes flat sheets of metal to
curl and curve.
A Bail is the
attachment at the top of a pendant, enabling the pendant to
hang from a chain.
used as a core for plating and gold-filled items. A common metal such as
brass, copper or nickel are common base metals in jewelry.
A method of seating a
stone within a circle of metal to hold it securely, to
protect the GIRDLE of the stone, to enhance its appearance,
and as part of a design.
A Box Chain is a chain
with wide, square links that form boxes.
Has a hollow housing
with a groove in which a spring tongue clicks into place to
secure the clasp shut.
A round diamond, the
most popular cut for diamonds. It is based on a
mathematical calculation in which 58 facets are placed on a
diamond by polishing. The best stones follow the
formula most closely and reflect the most light.
A gemstone or diamond
that is cut in a teardrop form. This type of cut is
used in many drops and pendants.
A buttercup is a
six-prong setting, with tall prongs, that resembles a
flower. The setting is scalloped in design.
A type of chain that
has close-fitting links, which create an intricate design
and form a tubular chain.
Polishing a gemstone to a
smooth, rounded surface. Used only for colored
gemstones in which the reflection of light is not crucial.
The back of the stone is generally flat. A faceted
cabochon is cut with faceted surfaces around the edge of the
Term describing the weight of
a gemstone, not to be confused with KARAT. A carat is
1/140th of an ounce; each carat is further divided into
Making a model or mold of wax
or metal and creating multiple copies of the same item by
using the mold repeatedly.
Decorating the front surface
of a metal sheet by making tiny indentations with an
Nautilus pompilius, nautilus
are widely recognized shells with a distinctive spiral shape
that is an exact mathematical equation. A cross
section of the shell displays the various chambers used by
the animal. The largest chamber at the front of the
shell is where the animal lives, while the chambers behind
are used for buoyancy so the nautilus can rise to the
surface of the ocean or sink to the bottom. The outer
layer of the nautilus is a matte white with tan markings
near the inner spiral. When this layer is removed, the
nautilus is a striking white with iridescent rainbows of
color. At the center of the nautilus, the shell is a
pearlescent blue-gray color ovoid in shape. When used
in boxes and jewelry, it is called osmena pearl.
The appearance of a
line or a star within a gemstone when it is viewed in a
certain light and at an angle. Star sapphires and
cat's eye chrysoberyl or tiger's eye stones exhibit this
quality. These stones are always cut as cabochons to
bring out this quality.
A form of enameling in
which colored glass powder is placed within tiny wire cells
called cloisons. When the piece is fired in a kiln,
the glass melts and becomes a hard surface. The terms,
like most of the language of enameling, are taken from the
A term used to
describe all gemstones, in place of the vague and somewhat
negative term, 'semi-precious'. These stones are
precious in their own right, and may even be more valuable
than ordinary specimens of those known as precious.
Craft jewelers tend to use unusual colored stones, either
clear, faceted stones such as amethyst, citrine, peridot,
aquamarine, tourmaline or opaque stones such as turquoise,
agate. These stones may be FACETED or CABOCHON cut,
depending on the quality of the gemstone material as well as
the design they are intended for.
The cubic form of
zirconium oxide; grown in the lab. One carat is about
The facet placed at the tip
of a diamond. It is known as the 58th facet.
Usually referring to pearls, but also applied to certain
colored gemstones. Cultured pearls are grown within
the oyster, but are given a start by the insertion of a bit
of shell or mollusk tissue. Cultured gemstones are
grown in the laboratory using the same material as found in
A matching set of
jewelry, usually containing a necklace, earrings, and a pin.
A process by which the
goldsmith burns out the base metals in a gold alloy to
create a surface of pure gold.
The hardest material known,
diamond is a highly compressed form of carbon. The
stone must be polished to bring out its beauty.
Diamonds, in spite of the popular slogan, are not always
forever. A diamond, which has grain like wood, can
split along a cleavage line, either by accident or by the
hand of the cleaver. One carat is about $4,500.
Also see EMERALD CUT.
By mixing in certain additives such as titanium or aluminum,
glass is created with two colors, visible under different
viewing conditions. One reflects light, the other
transmits light. The glass also picks up colors from
the wearer's clothing, the effect is that the glass will
change color before your eyes depending on how the light
Also known as rectangular cut, a geometric shape in which
two sides of a stone are shorter than the other two.
The result, in diamonds, is an elegant, but quiet stone.
It demands a fine quality piece of ROUGH because there is
little chance of hiding INCLUSIONS.
Enamel: A term
that covers several methods of melting glass powders to form
a colored surface. The most popular method in use
today is CLOISONNÉ.
A method of decorating
the surface of metal or a gemstone from the front by
incising a design into the surface. Small amounts of
metal or gemstone material are removed in the process.
Terms used by
metalsmiths to indicate work made by hand. It
differentiates work made by CASTING.
away of diamond material to create a series of planes or
facets on the surface of the stone. The facets act as
windows, allowing light to enter the diamond. With
precise faceting, the diamond reflects and refracts light.
Diamond polishing, or cutting, has gained in importance and
is now considered a vital element in the value of the stone.
A term covering
diamonds with strong body color. Diamonds occur
naturally in a wide range of colors from yellow to pink,
blue and green. The more intense the color, the more
desirable. While an off-white diamond is far less
valuable than one with no body color, an intense canary
yellow diamond is highly desired. Pink diamonds were
quite rare until the advent of diamond mining in Australia,
where the Argyle mine produces a small but steady supply of
intense purple-pink diamonds. Two of the most famous
diamonds in the world are fancies-the Tiffany Diamond is a
canary while the Hope Diamond is a deep blue.
A trade term for
any diamond cut other than the brilliant, round or
A French word
meaning 'fake' or 'false'. It is often used to
describe beads resembling pearls that have no actual pearl
content but it is sometimes used in low-cost jewelry for
glass stones emulating genuine COLORED GEMSTONES.
A Filigree design is lace-like ornamental detail made form
intricately arranged wires.
connectors that allow jewelry to be put on, such as clasps,
hooks, and clutches for earrings.
An elongated fracture or
crack in the surface of a diamond or gemstone.
process to shape gold.
are cultivated in lakes, mainly in China, and can produce
cultured pearls like their SALTWATER PEARL cousins.
Enormous technical advances in culturing have led to pearls
that are nearly round, at a much lower cost the the
A hollow rock
(usually spherical) with crystals lining the inside walls.
circumference of a gemstone.
colored, soft, shiny metal commonly used in jewelry. Pure gold, 100%
gold, 24 karat gold that is at least 99.5% pure as it comes
from the refinery. See KARAT.
For use in
jewelry, pure gold is usually alloyed with other metals such
as copper, nickel, silver, or zinc to add strength. The metals used
in the alloy also effect a change in the color. Gold
can be alloyed to be white, pink or red, green, or pale
yellow depending on the metals used. The purity of the
resulting product is expressed in KARATS.
process in which fine gold is deposited onto a metal base.
The layer of gold in Gold plating is only required to be
seven-millionths of an inch thick. (The layer of gold
in gold-filled products is about on hundred times thicker
A misnomer since
the gold isn't filled with anything. Rather, it is
used as the outer layers of a sandwich. The gold is
permanently bonded by heat and pressure to a layer of karat
gold. In gold-filled products, the gold layer must be
at least 1/20th (5%) of the overall product, by weight.
Any purity of gold may be used, most gold-filled products
are made with either 12K or 14K gold. The purity of
gold used can be determined by the notation in front of the
words Gold-filled. 14/20 Gold-filled and 14K
Gold-filled both refer to a product in which 14K gold has
been bonded to the base metal core.
see GOLD FILLED.
with gold electroplate. It is another term for GOLD
An elaborate and
ancient form of surface decoration, comprising tiny balls of
pure gold individually applied to a HIGH KARAT GOLD surface.
The balls may be arranged in patterns or used in single rows
to highlight a design. The Etruscans perfected this
technique around the 7th century BC.
An alloy of gold
and silver, copper and zinc that has a greenish cast; it is
used to complement certain gemstones.
mallets are used to texture or shape gold by repeated blows.
See also: ANTI-CLASTIC RAISING.
Hardness is a stone's ability
to resist scratching, surface inclusions, abrasions or
for gold of at least 20 karat purity. This term is
common in contemporary goldsmithing in which goldsmiths want
the want the rich color of high karat gold. The higher
the karat, the more yellow the gold. Some designers
alloy their own gold to achieve exactly the desired color,
even matching the alloy to the gemstones being used.
Gold in small quantities can be alloyed with the heat from a
hand held torch.
term for any foreign material found within a gemstone.
In diamonds, inclusions dramatically affect the ability of
the diamond to reflect and refract light. This has led
to an elaborate rating system to describe the degree to
which a diamond is 'included'. Also known as flaws.
In emeralds, which are rarely without inclusions, elegant
language such as 'silk' and 'jardin' (meaning garden) is
used to turn a drawback into a virtue.
of the purity of gold based on a total of 24 parts.
Pure gold has 24 parts of gold and is called 24 karat or
24K. Fourteen karat gold is 58% gold and is usually
marked 14K; 18K or 18 karat gold is 75% gold and 25% other
metals. In the United States, an alloy must have at
least ten parts of gold in order to be marked as gold.
Not to be confused with CARAT.
The ease with
which a metal can be worked by stretching, rolling, or
drawing it. Gold is a very malleable metal and can be
worked with hand tools.
brilliant in which both ends taper to a point.
A muted surface
finish achieved in a variety of ways such as sandblasting.
A Melee is a small diamond, under 0.20 carats.
gemstone made of silicon and carbon. It's made of
silicon carbide, a mineral. It has more brilliance,
more fire, more luster than a diamond. It is lighter
than diamond. It costs about a tenth as much as a
diamond for the same carat size, one carat is about $450.
It won't scratch. It is nearly as hard as a diamond.
Diamonds register 10 on a standard scale used by jewelers.
Moissanite registers 9.25, ahead of rubies and sapphires at
9 and emeralds at 7.5.
A Japanese term
meaning 'wood grained'. It is a sandwich of metals,
often multi-colors of gold, that are then manipulated to
and all of their close relatives are extinct, so very little
is known about them except that they were sea creatures that
thrived in the early Jurassic period (around 200 million
years ago), and became extinct about the same time as the
substance that forms the lining of the shells of some
fresh-water and some salt-water mollusks. Like the
pearl it is a secretion of the mantle, composed of alternate
layers of calcium carbonate and conchiolin ( a protein
substance that is the organic basis of mollusk shells).
Note the root word, conch, which many find familiarly in
seashore locations. Among the chief sources are the
pearl oyster, found in warm and tropical seas, chiefly in
Asia; the fresh-water pearl mussel, which lives in many
rivers of the United States and Europe; and the abalone of
California, Japan, and other Pacific regions.
An Omega chain has closely
interlocking links, which forms a flat, solid surface.
The quality of
not allowing light to pass through.
light to pass through; solid.
egg-shape cut in which both ends are gently rounded.
A Parure is a matching set of jewelry, usually containing a
necklace, earrings, brooch and a bracelet.
actually a form of discoloration, that occurs on the surface
of metal after it has been exposed, either to the atmosphere
or to chemical treatment. In the hands of an artist,
the patina becomes an integral part of the surface
Haliotis Iris -
more commonly known as the Paua or Rainbow Abalone. It
can be found along the shores of New Zealand and the
Philippines. The outside of the shell is rough and
dull, while the inside is a beautiful blend of colors.
The animal that lives inside this shell is black and it is
the foot of the animal that is edible and marketed in many
countries. The shell is most commonly used in jewelry
as well as inlays in such items as furniture and
guitars. The word paua is actually Maori (a tribe in
New Zealand) for abalone. Abalone shells belong to the
family Haliotidae and are nicknamed sea ears for their oval
shape. Because of the beauty of this shell and its
relative thinness, paua shell tends to be more expensive.
technique in which small diamonds are placed closely
together within a metal surface. The appearance should
be that of all stones making the surface looked paved.
CULTURED, FRESHWATER PEARL AND SALTWATER PEARL.
A cut in which
one end is rounded while the other ends in a point.
Proportions can vary greatly and a pear cut should be well
balanced. This is often the choice when a stone has
inclusions at one end. by trimming the end to a taper,
the inclusions are eliminated and the value of the stone is
of gold that includes copper.
silver-white, dense and strong metal. It is used in
nearly its pure state in jewelry, and is alloyed with metals
of the same group. It is favored for use in PRONG
SETTING because it is extremely strong.
A trade term
that means the item actually contains the amount of gold
indicated such as 14K or 18K. It dates from an earlier
period in which manufacturers had a leeway of one-half karat
and gold marked 14K could contain as little as 13.5 parts of
gold. Rarely used anymore.
of weight for gemstones. There are one hundred points
in a CARAT.
see PAUA SHELLS.
A term covering
metals that are extremely resistant to corrosion by most
means. The precious metals group includes gold, silver
A term commonly
applied to the 'big three' of the colored gemstone world:
ruby, sapphire and emerald. It is a misnomer however,
since any one of these three can be of very poor quality and
of little value whereas a colored gemstone of another type
can have higher value.
A system of
holding stones in place by means of small metal wires that
allow the greatest part of the stone to be viewed.
metalworking technique in which metal tools are used to
create patterns on a sheet of metal. The work is done
from the back, unlike ENGRAVING or CHASING which are done on
the front of the metal.
surface of metal with heat or chemicals to make it melt and
bubble to form interesting textures.
An artificial stone made of hard glass and cut to look like
a gem. One carat, starting at $3.
A technique in
which sheets of metal are run through a small rolling mill
along with another element such as fabric, mesh screen,
leaves, anything that will be embossed into the metal.
A spiral-like chain
with an appearance of two thick, woven strands.
of gemstone material as it comes from the earth. As
the rough is cut or polished, gemstone weight is sacrificed
for symmetry and beauty. In the case of a diamond, at
least half the weight of the rough is lost in the polishing.
Pearls that are
cultured in Japan, China and other areas are farmed in bays
or inlets of the ocean. Only under these conditions
and in these kinds of mollusks can a hard object such as a
clamshell bead be inserted to start the pearl culturing
process. With a round bead, the resulting pearl is
likely to be round, or nearly so, which is not possible with
a FRESHWATER PEARL.
A method surface
treatment in which the metal is bombarded with tiny grains
of sand that create texture.
A white colored,
soft, shiny metal, commonly used in jewelry. Like
GOLD, silver is available in different levels of purity: the
purest form, FINE silver, is 99.9% silver; STERLING silver
is 92.5% silver, with other metals (usually copper) making
up the remaining 7.5%; COIN silver is 90% silver with 10%
copper. NICKEL silver is an alloy of 65% copper,
nickel and zinc - NO silver at all.
substance meant to look like another, for example cubic
zirconium, which is meant to look like DIAMOND. It
differs from CULTURED material in that it is a completely
A term meant to
imply KARAT GOLD, rather than GOLD PLATE or GOLD FILLED.
It does not mean an object is solid through and through.
measured on a scale of 1000 parts. Sterling is 925
parts silver, 75 parts alloy. Also see SILVER.
Any of many
methods used to enhance a metal surface such as
largely out of use that actually means a material that has
been made in a laboratory but which is the same as the
material it emulates. It has come to be confused with
surface of metal that has been enhanced through
SANDBLASTING, CHASING, ENGRAVING or other means.
Allowing some light to pass through, objects seen through
translucent material are diffused or indistinct.
Easily seen through, allowing light to pass through without
obscuring the ability to see objects on the other side.
frequently misused term. It applies only to a base of
sterling silver plated with karat gold.
An alloy of gold
and 'white' metal such as silver, nickel, or zinc.
Any alloy of
gold in which the color remains true to the original color
of the metal. Yellow gold may be as high as 24K or as
low as 10K, it may not be marked as gold in the United
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